Anthropic Cosmology: Fine-Tuning By Design?

The Creation would arise to accept a bulk of architecture and fine-tuning basal its anatomy that allows things of anatomy and actuality that are added circuitous than just the $.25 and pieces allotment and bindle of the accepted archetypal of atom physics. An altered antecedent suggests that basic absoluteness worlds will awfully outnumber in fact complete worlds and appropriately advance that allegedly we ability be basic beings ‘existing’ in a computer / software programmed, appropriately apish landscape. Programmed computer software has to be both advised and fine-tuned. So Catholic architecture and fine-tuning aswell credibility appear the absoluteness of our just getting $.25 and bytes, not electrons and quarks.

In accurate circles, abnormally biological circles, the abstraction of “intelligent design” is usually accustomed the acute thumbs’ down because of the abnormal and apostolic connotations. I intend to beacon able-bodied bright of that can of worms, absorption on addition affectionate of ‘design’ with emphasis on the physical, not the biological sciences.

Fortunately, if it comes to ‘design’, there’s added than just the God Antecedent option. There’s the Mother Attributes Antecedent advantage – life, the Cosmos and aggregate is the way it is because that’s the way it is. You got one role of the catholic dice; one accord of the catholic cards, and this is what came up, like it or agglomeration it. There’s the Multiverse Antecedent which negates fine-tuning and architecture by advertence that some universes (like ours) are added appropriate if it comes to the accidental laws, attempt and relationships that accredit stuff, including active getting to survive and advance (just like Earth is added appropriate if it comes to getting bio-friendly about to a lot of added planets). Finally there’s the Simulation Antecedent which replaces God with a mortal, fallible, flesh-and-blood computer / software programmer that has created a ‘video game’ alleged “The Activity and Times of Planet Earth and Associated Cosmos”.

COSMIC ‘DESIGN’

The Creation exhibits some bulk of ‘design’ because:

There is something rather than just a authentic abolishment (although authentic abolishment aswell ‘exists’).

There is added than one axiological something (electrons, quarks, photons, neutrinos, etc.).

And while an alien architecture and artist isn’t required* to explain the assortment of life, accustomed another (Darwinian evolution) getting added than adequate, the ambit of physique diplomacy appears rather limited. You accept an abominable lot of left-right agreement about to back-front or top-bottom symmetry, admitting there are several examples of adorable symmetry. Sensory organs tend to be front-and-centre and appear the top.

* Though that in itself doesn’t aphorism it out. Bogus another is able-bodied accepted and as biotechnology and abiogenetic engineering advances, bogus another is acceptable added that aphorism than the exception. In actuality an accomplished case can be fabricated for the animal breed getting the artefact of aberrant or bogus another by an alien agency.

I’d like to focus on two specific examples of credible catholic design, radioactive adulteration and the solar eclipse.

There are abundant means the bulk of radioactive adulteration could proceed, not the diminutive getting something affiliated to all-over-the-map aback the action is allegedly a in fact accidental action – a accidental airing scenario. How two identical radioactive (unstable) diminutive nuclei can sit side-by-side with one corrupt aural a minute while the added hangs about for decades is in fact anomalous. Even stranger, all this randomness happens allegedly afterwards any agent involved. That abandoned tells you that there accept to be a hidden diplomacy operating abaft the radioactive adulteration action aback things just don’t appear for in fact no acumen at all. Something, or anyone is allegorical this.

To accumulation on the weirdness, random, a-causal radioactive adulteration allegedly follows a austere algebraic accord or progression (the half-life relationship). That just reinforces the architecture approach aback absolutely accidental a-causal adventitious doesn’t commonly baddest for complete algebraic relationships.

If randomness of alarm after-effects in a half-life relationship, afresh all non-cyclic abnormality that is accidental should display a half-life relationship. For example, chase the alleyway of 1000 babies built-in in one city-limits on one day of the week. If bisected die (decay) in 70 years, does that beggarly that addition 250 will accept died if 140 years accept delayed abrogation 125 added to die afore addition 70 years accept passed, and so on?

Okay, that ability be a bit affected aback we’re all allegedly hardwired to die (decay) anon thereafter our three-score-and-ten years has appear and gone. But yield 1000 atramentous dust on a white albino beach. Sooner or afterwards anyone is traveling to bandy one of those dust aback into the sea. Say 500 get tossed afterwards one year. Will there still be 250 larboard afterwards two years and 125 larboard afterwards three years? What are the odds?

If bisected of 1,000 casting new ablaze bulbs bake out afterwards one year, will 250 still be operational afterwards two years has delayed and 125 afterwards the third year? If a array sitting on the shelf uses up bisected its actinic activity abeyant afterwards 10 years, will it still accept a division larboard afterwards 20 years?

Of advance in the case of the babies / bodies (biology) and the ablaze bulbs (physics) and the array (chemistry), we’re talking about pre-programmed shelf life. Ambiguous radioactive nuclei accept in approach no shelf activity aback there’s no agent circuitous in their decay, yet they adulteration abroad in a complete way anyway. Something’s aberrant somewhere!

Speaking of design, isn’t it amazing that the credible diameters of the Sun and the Moon (which is boring affective added abroad from the Earth) just appear to accompany just at the time if avant-garde bodies acquired for them to acknowledge the consistent solar eclipses!!!

FINE-TUNING

There appears to be some bulk of fine-tuning aural the Cosmos, not just to acquiesce activity to abide but to aswell acquiesce non-living things of anatomy and actuality to appear to the ahead – atoms, molecules, and conglomerates of these. If there were just one or two or even three examples of fine-tuning, one ability abolish the abstraction and put it all down to chance. But if there are abundant examples, one needs to sit up and yield apprehension and appoint in a “please explain”. For example:

# The exhaustion activity is 120 orders of consequence beneath than that predicted.

# The electric allegation on the electron is absolutely according and adverse of that on the proton.

# The exponents and coefficients in algebraic equations tend to be simple low bulk accomplished numbers or simple fractions thereof.

# The Pauli Exclusion Assumption which states that no two electrons with the aforementioned breakthrough configurations can absorb the aforementioned ‘orbit’. Were that not the case there would be no bendability to matter; no anatomy to the atom; no arch stability; and as to the rules that administer allure – able-bodied just overlook about it. Basically it allows multi-electron atoms to exist, contrarily all electrons would absorb the everyman accessible activity accompaniment and debris to access into chemistry. So, no Pauli Exclusion Principle; no you.

# The just-so resonance that allows for the top anticipation that the conception of carbon will advance central stars. If there’s no carbon, afresh there are no precious stones to be a girl’s best acquaintance – in actuality no girls either.

# The versatility of the carbon atom.

# One ability calmly brainstorm a Creation area all of the aboriginal bearing stars just beat their ammunition accumulation and boring achromatic abroad into white dwarfs, red dwarfs and ultimately rock algid comatose atramentous dwarfs; neutron stars; even atramentous holes. There would be no physics bearing novae or supernovae and appropriately no conception of the added elements and no recycling of interstellar abstracts into additional and third bearing stars all with elements appropriate to accomplish life.

# The Creation is on an acute knife bend amid getting an Open Creation and a Closed Cosmos. That ‘edge’ is the Collapsed Creation (where triangles accept 180 degrees). A Collapsed Creation requires a just-so force or analytical physique of bulk / energy. If force had been a tiny bit weaker abolishment would accept airtight calm and we would accept an Open Cosmos. If force had been a lot, or even a tiny bit stronger, the Cosmos would accept anon burst aback on itself (a Closed Cosmos) with a column Big Bang accident like a continued elastic bandage snapping aback to its aboriginal configuration.

# Rather against-the-grain, ice floats on water. That’s capital for life.

# Cycling and recycling: brainstorm the after-effects if baptize didn’t evaporate; if plants didn’t furnish oxygen and animals carbon dioxide; if abolishment captivated insect exoskeletons and bird feathers; if abrasion wasn’t counter-balanced by abundance building; and just the accepted abstraction that problems are just opportunities and that one thing’s debris / adulteration is addition thing’s abundance / food.

EMERGENCE

Examples of about complication arising or arising from about artlessness abound. Here are a few examples.

# Wetness from a abutment of hydrogen and oxygen.

# Altered actinic backdrop appear from altered configurations of electrons, neutrons and protons. [I’m still not abiding accept that works exactly. How can abacus an added electron, proton and neutron about-face carbon (6) into nitrogen (7); sulfur (16) into chlorine (17); or gold (79) into mercury (80)?]. Or the reverse, say radioactivity area one element, like uranium, sheds getting like alpha and beta particles and appropriately eventually morphs into lead. I beggarly electrons, neutrons and protons accept no actinic backdrop of their own, just mass, allegation and ‘spin’. Allure isn’t supernatural, but it abiding is spooky.

# Activity from amoebic chemistry.

# A haystack from sticks of straw.

# An auto from an aggregation of metal, plastic, rubber, glass, etc. or a armchair from copse and cloth.

# Consciousness from academician allure / chemistries.

ENIGMAS ARISING

There doesn’t assume to be any concrete assumption that requires the actualization of abolishment new arising from the parts. Grains of bank on a bank just abide grains of bank on the bank unless anyone comes forth and advisedly builds a advised bank castle. Basically, if there is no claim set in rock for the axiological particles (neutrons, a quark trilogy; protons, addition quark trilogy; and electrons) to hop into bed and beget added added avant-garde non-fundamental things (like atoms and molecules) afresh actualization is chock-full in its advance afore it begins.

Now two (or more) neutrons are just two (or more) neutrons. Two (or more) electrons are just two (or more) electrons who would adopt to go their abstracted means aback they accept the aforementioned charge. Two (or more) protons are just two (or more) protons who aswell would adopt to go their abstracted means aback they accept the aforementioned charge.

A admixture of neutrons and protons are appropriately that – a mixture. Of advance a admixture of two protons and two neutrons comprise a helium nucleus, contrarily alleged an alpha atom if argument out in radioactive decay. But of advance a helium basis isn’t the aforementioned as helium itself. A accumulating of neutrons and electrons are just that. Lastly, a accumulating or aggregate of electrons and protons appears promising, except – if a neutron decays you get out a proton and an electron (plus activity and an anti-neutrino). So doesn’t an electron bond it up with a proton just aftermath a neutron (if you add those accessory missing capacity of course)?

Of advance one ability altercate that protons and neutrons are themselves appearing particles that emerged out of a leash of up and down quarks. But I’m not abiding that helps abundant aback no one has been able to abstract a quark and put it on the slab in the lab for abundant analysis.

While ambidextrous with some enigmas, here’s addition one that’s puzzled me. Why is it that if bulk meets anti-matter you get this big old Ka-Boom, an abolishment into authentic energy? You anticipate that if a abrogating electron meets and greets a complete positron, that you’d end up with a aloof atom with alert the accumulation of an electron (or a positron). I beggarly by comparison, if a abrogating electron meets and greets a complete proton, there’s no Ka-Boom. Would you get a Ka-Boom if an electron’s second-generation way added massive kissing-cousin, the muon (one abrogating charge) met a positron (one complete charge)? So there’s added to this sad annual than just according but adverse electric accuse affair and greeting. So again, there’s a catechism – ability there be some fine-tuning architecture abaft this appearing enigma?

Finally, the bigger bewilderment of all. How is it that the electric allegation on the electron is EXACTLY according and adverse of that on the proton, if these two particles are contrarily as akin as chalk-and-cheese?

MATHEMATICS

The Creation is a algebraic Cosmos. The Creation can be bidding by mathematics which suggests that some anticipation went into the ‘design’ of the Cosmos. The accomplished point of mathematics is to architecture or appear up with a pre-designed equation(s) that in about-face will accord you a fine-tuned answer. You can’t in fact abstracted mathematics out from the abstraction of architecture or fine-tuning. For example, accede the algebraic accord amid accumulation and energy; or pressure, aggregate and temperature. Afresh there’s both Einstein’s and Newton’s gravity; Newton’s laws of motion; Maxwell’s equations ambidextrous with electromagnetism; the Pythagorean Theorem; the boxlike equation, assorted breakthrough automated relationships, etc.

If you ambition the accord amid accumulation and activity you got just one fine-tuned option. There’s no catholic grab-bag of accessible equations you can use instead of E = mc-squared. Therefore the accord amid accumulation and activity is fine-tuned.

So if you ambition to apperceive the aggregate of a box that’s say 5 units by 7 units by 3 units, do you accept a grab-bag of options at your disposal? The abbreviate acknowledgment is “No”. So the adjustment of adding is advised and fine-tuned and the acknowledgment is fine-tuned.

For some added examples consider:

# The bulk of Pi is the aforementioned no bulk how big the amphitheater is.

# All Euclidean (those on a collapsed surface) triangles accept 180 degrees, no bulk what.

# Kepler’s laws apropos all-embracing motion area according time equals according areas swept out.

# Abounding facets of our amusing / bread-and-butter systems as able-bodied as those of the accustomed apple can be declared mathematically via changed ability laws which are alluringly simple and acutely mysterious!

SYMMETRY

While abolishment that has a 3-D anatomy has to accept a larboard – right; top – basal (up – down); and aback – front, there’s no claim that there be symmetry. Added acceptable as not your abode or apartment, etc. is not symmetrical, abnormally internally. But your car has for all applied purposes larboard – appropriate agreement and that’s by design. There doesn’t accept to be anti-matter. There doesn’t accept to be according and adverse electric accuse (gravity can do the clumping); there doesn’t accept to be macho and changeable (and generally there isn’t both – asexual reproduction). However, all these symmetries and abounding added exist, and one can put that down to advised architecture as against to authentic chance. Here is a fractional annual of some symmetries.

# DNA molecule.

# Crystals; snowflakes.

# Additional – bare (mathematics).

# Bulk – antimatter.

# Action – reaction.

# Attraction – repulsion; arctic pole – south pole (magnetism); abrogating allegation – complete charge.

# Cause – effect.

# Macho – female.

# Heads – tails.

# Spheres (planets, stars, etc.).

# Buckminsterfullerene (Bucky-balls).

# Yes – no.

# Aback – front; top – basal (up – down); larboard – right.

# Catholic isotropy – Creation looks the aforementioned in all directions.

# Catholic accord – all credibility aural the Creation are equivalent.

But there are banned to symmetry. There’s no anti-gravity (unless you ambition to calculation Dark Activity as a anatomy of anti-gravity); there’s no anti-time.

SCIENTISTS

Scientists, getting afterwards all humans, generally accord in to the rather estimated use of assertive words in anecdotic their accurate description of life, the Cosmos and aggregate scientific. They generally use words such as deep, meaningful, beautiful, exquisite, and simple (think of Ockham’s Razor). For example, Einstein’s accumulation – activity accord technically just is. It exists as a cold-as-stone hardcore accurate fact. But scientists generally tend to accord that accord those value-added words like elegant.

But it doesn’t stop there. Scientists, allegedly afterwards even acumen the estimated after-effects of accomplishing this, generally accredit a personality to Mother Attributes / the Cosmos. The Cosmos hates this; attributes abhors a vacuum; Mother Attributes has an amazing affection for and loves beetles; attributes desires this or that or the next accompaniment of affairs. I’ve apparent scientists use words / phrases to call Mother Attributes / creation as capricious; agitated (red in tooth and claw); blah and indifferent; clever; lovely; strange; and that she generally prefers. We’ve all heard the byword that “Mother Attributes is a bitch”.

On the added hand, a computer / software programmer could calmly like or afraid and be all and be a programmer of all of the added things too.

Now acutely if one designs something by choice, say a video game, atypical or a house, one does not architecture that video bold / abode / atypical to be circuitous and animal and bank and afterwards acceptation / purpose and inelegant. So the actuality that scientists, who should apperceive better, blooper into anecdotic life, the Cosmos and aggregate accurate in such aureate terms, able-bodied this suggests that conceivably there was a advised and planned architecture abaft it all. The designer’s mindset and the scientist’s mindset tend to be in parallel.

DISCUSSION

So how are we to explain all of this? Firstly, there doesn’t accept to be a complete purpose to the Creation in adjustment for architecture and fine-tuning to be true.

If you adios the God Antecedent (which I do) and the Multiverse Antecedent (which has the exact aforementioned bulk of affirmation traveling for it as the God Antecedent – none), that leaves the Mother Attributes Antecedent (pure chance) or the Simulation Hypothesis. I vote for the Simulation Hypothesis.

Now one abstraction strikes me as obvious. Programmed software, in adjustment to be something in fact advantageous with some bulk of order, logic, rules, laws, principles, complete relationships and adequation has to be both advised and fine-tuned. That’s the case if you accede all of our video / computer amateur and training simulators (concept: puppets on the string) as able-bodied as all of our ‘what if’ simulation scenarios (concept: casting your fate to the wind).

RATIONALE

Software, about by analogue has to be advised and fine-tuned. Contrarily it serves no advantageous purpose.

Software can annual for all of the architecture and fine-tuning elements, including arising elements, discussed above.

There is abolishment impossible, improbable, or even absurd about the Simulation Antecedent aback we bodies accept created our own versions of apish landscapes and basic beings, added and added and added of them anytime faster, cheaper and bigger with every casual year. What we can do, others accept done – better, faster, and cheaper.

# A abundant accord has been accounting and speculated about the abilities of ultra-super avant-garde abstruse societies in fact creating an absolutely new cosmos from scratch, say by manipulating breakthrough fluctuations. Aside from the dangers of accomplishing so, like getting at Ground Zero and at the focus of a new Big Bang event, wouldn’t it just be easier – and safer – to simulate one?

So, already aloft a time in a galaxy far, far away, accustomed another acquired a awful technologically avant-garde exoteric acculturation who admired creating academic simulations about the actuality of added exoteric activity forms based on the characteristics of the extra-solar planets they discovered. [That’s something we’ve acutely done too.] One of their multi-millions of apish scenarios was alleged “The Activity and Times on the Third Rock from the Star Sol”!

# Accustomed another acquired the animal breed as per the accepted animal archetypal and in the year 2525 CE their accretion technology avant-garde to the date area they could actualize awful abundant and astute antecedent simulations – that’s us. [Well, we actualize simulations of Civil War battles, so why not bodies in the year 2525 CE simulate locations of their history?]

So, based on authentic probability, there will be awfully added basic absoluteness worlds inhabited by basic absoluteness beings in ‘existence’ than in fact complete worlds inhabited by in fact complete beings. Now the capital point to bethink is that it’s not the complete amount of awful avant-garde abstruse civilizations or societies on action but the RATIO of basic worlds to in fact complete worlds, and demography us as typical, able-bodied the RATIO is multi-thousands to one if you accede all of the video ‘games’ that we accept created appropriate about the world, accomplished and present.

POSTSCRIPT

Are you asleep, perchance to be dreaming? There’s a analytic another to the aloft – dreams. Assuming that you’re a in fact complete being, if you dream, you dream up apish basic absoluteness beings. Now over the advance of your lifetime, you will accept over 100,000 dreams. So, one in fact complete getting creates hundreds of bags of basic beings. Now, what are the allowance you are that in fact complete getting and not a basic getting in anyone else’s dream?

Good Photography Equipment Makes For Great Photos

I’ve been asked several times what affectionate of camera accessories I use for my dog photography so I absitively to address it down. As with about anything, acceptable accessories makes things run added smoothly. No barring with photography. Now, I’m a Nikon shooter. But it has been my acquaintance that in the photography world, it depends alone on who you ask as to which cast is better; Nikon or Canon. I will say this, they both accept strengths and weaknesses, they both are abundant cameras and they both accept abundant lenses. So, I anticipate it’s a amount of claimed opinion. If you ask me, I would acquaint you I shoot with Nikon and I am actual blessed with Nikon and I don’t anticipate I will anytime change, that doesn’t beggarly I won’t, but it’s actual unlikely.

Now, I will acquaint you to my photography equipment;

The first, and a lot of loved, is my Nikon D300 camera physique called Buddy

The additional is my Nikon 18-200 VR lens called Bud

The third is my Nikon SB-900 Speedlight called Buddy’s Buddy (I called him that because no one loves him but me and Buddy. He blinds anybody else)

My three new cameras and lenses are Chico, Dud, & Tomas. Chico is a D5000 camera body, Dud is an 18-55 VR lens, Tomas is a 70-300 VR lens, and, abreast from Bud, he is my admired lens.

My admired aggregate of camera & lens for dog photography is the D300 and 70-300 VR, and for an all around, accepted purpose, do-most-jobs, camera admixture for me is the D300 with the 18-200 VR with the SB-900 Speedlight. (I attempt an absolute marriage with this set up)

Now, why go with a D300, I started my photography career with the D300 with the 18-200 VR and I will accept to say not a bigger camera-lens admixture anytime existed. The D300 has so abundant versatility in all kinds of lighting its about arch spinning, the low babble ISO is actual incredible. Many times I’ve taken actual nice pictures of deer in the bare aside ablaze aboriginal in the morning with a top ISO with the acknowledgment advantage set adequately top with actual adorable results. But the D300 isn’t for everyone, with all the buttons, switches, and card options, it takes a little time to get acclimated to it and adept it. But already you adept it, the after-effects are able-bodied account it.

On the 18-200 VR lens, the microburst versatility zoom ability is acumen abundant to buy it. One affair I adulation about the zoom ability is the actuality that I alone accept to yield one lens to do the job that ability yield two or three lenses. Also I adulation the VR (vibration reduction) capabilities, a few times I angry off the VR about-face and approved to yield a few pictures and the aberration is apperception boggling.

I got the 70-300 VR lens as a able semi telephoto lens for a actual analytic price, and as a result, it is one of my admired lenses. Again like the 18-200, its versatile, top power, and advanced zoom lens, I can yield abundant pictures of deer at 100 yards with it and I don’t accept to lug about an 8lb, 15 inch lens all day.

The alone acumen I got the 18-55 VR is it came with the D5000 camera and lens kit and it was alone $100 but I begin it came in accessible if my mom capital to shoot with it if I wish to shoot with my D300 and 18-200 lens. On the D5000, it’s a abundant advancement camera and that’s what I bought it for. The D5000 is a small, compact, simple, and it takes a actual acceptable picture.

Now, I’ll acquaint you to my camera accoutrements and backpacks. They are all Lowepro, I’ve acclimated several altered brands but none accept admiring me as abundant as Lowepro; they are tough, able-bodied built, versatile, able-bodied padded, the backpacks accept abundant harnesses, all about acceptable superior products. I accept the;

Rolling Computer Adventurer AW, Rolling Haversack

Dryzone Rover Hydration System, Waterproof Haversack

Nova 2 AW, Shoulder Bag

I chose the rolling computer adventurer because it is a rolling backpack, a huge advantage for photographing dog shows and places area you do a lot of walking on almost collapsed surfaces, and it can go on the even additional it can backpack a tripod. The rolling adventurer is what I alarm my “base camp” area all my accessories stays if I’m not application them. I use the Dryzone Rover and the Nova for “field trips” the Dryzone is acclimated primarily for my aback dupe trips area I charge added things added than camera equipment. The Dryzone is a new accession to my armory and I’m still putting it through its paces. My Nova is acclimated for little trips and befitting the capital camera accessories with me if I charge to leave my auberge allowance or something.

A tip for the accoutrements I talked about above; if I go to shows, I yield the rolling adventurer to the appearance website and authorize “Base Camp” again I yield the Nova out on “Field Trips” and I’m now application the Dryzone for weekend trips out into the backwoods, the Dryzone’s camera alcove is big abundant to yield all my camera accessories and additional batteries & anamnesis cards, plus, its waterproof. The Dryzone has two compartments, the top allotment is for accepted items like aliment and additional socks additional the Hydration baptize backlog that came with the pack. The basal alcove is the waterproof camera compartment, the accessories organizer central is absolutely ergonomically shaped and I can fit two camera bodies, two lenses, and one Speedlight with additional batteries & anamnesis cards with even a little allowance larboard over.